The name Panem derives from the Latin phrase panem et circenses, which literally translates into English as "bread and circuses". The phrase itself is used to describe entertainment used to distract public attention from more important matters. Though this comes from the previous regime's desire to distract the public, the name was retained after the Second Rebellion. This phrase also was the founding of Panem's twin, the South American nation of Circenses.
The information in the following two sections of this chapter were extracted from the political officials of Panem, without which most of the information here would be simply clouded or unknown.
B.P. (Before Panem)Edit
Panem was formed 244 years (about 2155) prior to the beginning of The Hunger Games trilogy. An unspecified time about 1000 years prior to the current date, the face of the Earth changed and modern civilization was seemingly destroyed. It is unknown precisely what caused the "end of the world", but major landmasses changed shape as the sea level rose around the planet. It is known by scientific research that CO2 levels increased, presumably by greenhouse gases and a global conflict was involved. When Panem was founded then its founding was used as a designation for labeling or numbering years (B.P., Before Panem). In the same time Dracaria rose( part of Uruguay) Dracaria was a monarchy led by Queen Jvanca Delamia. She was their only ruler and a possible descendant of snow. The fist Hunger games took place there and the idea caught up in Panem. Years later Dracaria sank never seen again.</span>The wilds lay North of Panem( Canada) The wilds were untouched serving as the game arenas . People call it “ district 14.”
Panem began as a small nation originally called Cascadia (16 B.P.) in the general area where the Capitol now exists. It was a single party dictatorship led by a man the extractees didn't know of, since only Snow did . The concept of the resources made by districts still didn't exist. It was divided into the 233 municipalities. They conquered three developing nations in a weak state who's border's served for the district that would later exist on the same land. The remainder was eventually conquered and united. By the the year 0, most of what once was North America had been conquered, and the nation was renamed. </span>
For the next 57 years, the system of dictated industries didn't exist in the 15 districts, until a lack of resources began. And so the system was founded. Two districts were combined to form District 7, and most others shaped with slightly different boundaries. </span>
In the year 62, District 14 (then the Defense district) was replaced by District 13 (then Entertainment). District 13 was not necessary as there was proper control so that panem et circenses wouldn't be needed. They were also more capable of being the defense district. District 14 was supposedly destroyed after a series of explosions that destroyed it, caused by a domino effect between nuclear power stations across the district. District 13 became the nuclear district. District 14 actually became a secret district used for water management. District 13 became responsible for graphite mining too, after graphite's uses were discovered and so were 13's abundance in graphite. District 14 was eventually brainwashed from the public's mind.
In the year 65, the original dictator died at the age of 100. He was replaced by another who at that point was 19, also unbeknownst to recent oppressors.
District number switchEdit
A boycott in District 3, one of three career districts, in the year 93 made it poor. For poetic justice, District 3 (fishing) and District 4 (technology) switched numbers and the technology district became wealthy.This didn't last long. Eventually, the District 4 gained wealth againfor its popularity with Capitol citizens. District 3 didn't produce enough technology tokeep up with their now highened quota, so they received a smaller quota with smaller portions. They didn't switch back numbers though, the purpose for doing this thought to be a conspiracy by The Capitol.
At some point, the second leader died and was replaced by a third, who's identity has also managed to remain a mystery.
Approximately 125 years before the events of The Hunger Games trilogy (119 A.P.), the various districts of Panem opressed by the Capitol suffered a great drought. This is because District 14 had a rebellion of its own. It is unknown how long the rebellion lasted or the exact number of casualties on either side, but by the end of the conflict, the Capitol had quelled the rebellion, defeating District 14, and worsening work conditions and work load. Desert districts like 10, 6 and 8, along with southern parts of 2) received heavy fatalities due to death from thirst.</p>
The Dark DaysEdit
Approximately before the events of The Hunger Games trilogy (170 A.P.), the various districts of Panem rebelled against the Capitol, primarily due to the oppressive fashion in which the Capitol government ruled over the districts. It is unknown how long the rebellion lasted or the exact number of casualties on either side (although the Capitol claimed that for every dead Capitol citizen, two rebels died), but by the end of the conflict, the Capitol had quelled the rebellion, defeating twelve of the districts and obliterating the thirteenth entirely.
The fourteenth took no part in this, but they stopped supplying water to all districts except District 2 during the rebellion as punishment by the Capitol. Since the districts wee united, water was sent from districts with access to freshwater to dryer districts.
At the hands of a rebel, the third leader was murdered, and power was obtained by President Coriolanus Snow. He led for the remainder of the Dark Days, which wasn't that much.
The Hunger GamesEdit
In the wake of the rebellion, the Capitol established the Hunger Games, an annual event in which twenty-four children between the ages of twelve and eighteen, one boy and one girl from each district, were chosen from a lottery and entered into a gladitorial competition where they must fight each other to the death until only one remains standing.
The event served two purposes. The first was to demonstrate the overwhelming power the Capitol had over the districts by taking their children by force and forcing them to slay each other in a no-rules competition. It was proof that the Capitol's control over its people was so inexorable and unstoppable that they could do something so sadistic as to force the children of their conquered foes to slay each other in a battle royale. The second purpose was purely for entertainment. The Hunger Games are a nationally televised event in the same vein as a reality show, its entrants practically considered celebrities and the events themselves dramatized and glorified.
The Games are no longer in place, but the same cannot be said for Circenses.
The Second RebellionEdit
The Second Rebellion formed in the aftermath of the 74th Hunger Games. Katniss Everdeen and Peeta Mellark's near double-suicide at the end of the games was interpreted as an act of rebellion by many residents of the districts and had caused many to rebel by the start of the 75th Hunger Games, which were also the 3rd Quarter Quell. During the Quarter Quell, Katniss shoots an arrow into the force field surrounding the arena, destroying the arena. She was rescued and transported to District 13, who rebuilt themselves underground. Beetee and Finnick are also rescued. Peeta, Johanna, and Enobaria were captured and held by the Capitol. In an attempt to end the rebellion, the Capitol destroyed District 12, much like District 13 was.
Led by Alma Coin and Plutarch Heavensbee, the resistance overthrew the Capitol. After Coin's death at the hands of Katniss Everdeen, Commander Paylor was elected President of Panem in Coin's place and the Hunger Games were ended. Paylor was re-elected for her last five year term. President Undersee of District 12 was elected president. The ongoing elections for the new presidency are being held between Madge Undersee and Mayor Lyme of District 2.
In the year 245, District 14's existence was obtained, and they were incorparated into Panem, who also incorporated District 13 upon the Republic's forming. The information of another North American country called Tierra Taina was also obtained from interrogation. After the forming of The Republic, Panem expanded its territories to uninhabited areas outside its boundaries. This included the obtaining of the Norland Territory , The Transatlantica Territory, the Hochelaga Territory and the disputed Territory of Colonia .
In the year 247, Norland and Hochelaga unified under the Treaty of Hochelaga, to form the protectorate of Tugonia, "The United Governorates of North America".
The Capitol had a description for anything that they could change and edit to their own use before the Second Rebellion. This is their official description of Panem's history.
"There once was a place called North America. But droughts and fires, hurricanes and tornadoes, and encroaching seas took their toll, Brutal wars broke out as people fought for the few remaining resources. The Earth was scarred and desolate, the people terrified and hopeless.
But out of the ashes and the wreckage rose Panem, a nation made up of a great Capitol, ringed by thirteen districts, which brought peace and prosperity to its citizens for many generations.
Then came the Dark Days, the uprising of the districts against the Capitol. The shining light of our nation was clouded by war, terrible war. The thirteen districts rebelled against the country that fed them, loved them, and protected them. Their revolt left the country in tatters. Motherless children filled the streets. The land was torn asunder. After a long struggle in which many died, there came a hard-won peace. Twelve districts were defeated, the thirteenth obliterated. Whenthe traitors were last suppressed, we swore as a nation we would never allow such treason again.
Thus was the Treaty of Treason written and signed, providing us with new laws to live by - laws that would guarantee peace. As a yearly reminder that the Dark Days must never come again, it was decreed that on the same day each year, the various districts would offer up in tribute one brave young man and one brave young woman to fight in a pageant of honor, courage and sacrifice - The Hunger Games. The twenty-four tributes were sent to an outdoor arena, where they struggle to overcome both man and nature, and triumph over the odds. Each year, the lone victor serves as a reminder of the nation's generosity and forgiveness.</span>
This season is both a time for repentance and a time for thanks. This is how we remember our past. This is how we safeguard our future.
Now, the great nation of Panem ruled by the shining Capitol, consists of twelve Districts, each essential in its own way. Each district concentrates on producing one resource, so that only together do the districts form a cohesive, powerful whole. The Capitol collects and redistributes the food and the fuel so that every district, and every family, has what it needs to prosper."
The Republic of Panem is a federal republic. The federal government is set up by the Constitution. There are three branches of government. They are the presidential branch, the legistorial branch, and the judicial branch. District governments work very much like the federal government.
The executive branch is the part of the government that enforces the law. The sane, non-criminals above 18 of Panem elect a president who is the leader of the executive branch, as well as the leader of the armed forces. The president decides whether or not the bills that the Legistorial branch passes will become laws, and the President may veto any bill. The President may also make "executive orders" to ensure that people follow the law. The president is in charge of many ministries that control much of the day-to-day business of government. The president chooses the heads of these ministries, and also nominates judges at the nation-wide level. However, the Guild, part of the legislative branch, must agree with all of the people the president chooses. The president may serve two 5-year terms.
The legislative branch is the part of the government that makes laws. The legislative branch is called the Chamber. The Chamber is divided into two "councils".
One council is the Council of Representatives. The Council of Representatives is made up of the Representatives, who are each elected by voters from a district. The number of Representatives a district has is based on how many people live there: the more people a district has, the more representatives it gets. Every 10 years, the Panem Population Count conducts a count of the population of Panem. Districts gain or lose Representatives based on their total population as shown by the count. Representatives serve three year terms. The leader of the Council of Representatives is the Chancellor, who is also the person who would become President if the President were unable to serve.
The other council is the Guild. In the Guild, each district is represented equally, by its mayors. Because there are 12 districts, there are 12 mayors, and a fifteenth for the Capitol. There used to be 16 mayors before district 13 was destroyed becuase of the act of rebellion they caused in the early years of the games. The territory of Transatlantica also adds a sixteenth mayor in the Guild. Colonia is uninhabited and those rights were removed from Norland and Hochelaga when they seceded. Therefore there are 16 mayors. Before the President makes treaties or appoints officials, the Guild must approve them. Mayors serve five-year terms, sometimes two of them. The mayor of the Capitol serves as Premier of the Guild, but may only cast votes in order to break a tie vote. Most of the time, the Capitol's mayor is just another member of the Guild.
Representatives and Mayors propose laws, called "bills", in their respective councils. A bill may be voted upon by the entire council right away or may first go to a small group of members of that council, known as a committee, which may recommend a bill for a vote by the whole council. If one council votes to pass a bill, the bill then gets sent to the other council; if both councils vote for it, it is then sent to the president, who may sign the bill into law or veto it. If the president vetoes the bill, it is sent back to the Chamber. If the Chamber votes again and passes the bill with at least a two-thirds majority, the bill becomes law and cannot be vetoed by the President. Under the Panem's laws, the Council may not make laws that directly control the states; instead, Congress may use the promise of federal funds or extenuating circumstances, such as national emergencies, to encourage the states to follow federal law.
The judicial branch is the part of government that interprets what the law means. The judicial branch is made up of the High Court and many lower courts. If the High Court decides that a law is not allowed by the Constitution, the law is said to be "struck down" and is no longer a valid law. The High Court is made up of ten judges, called justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Guild. One of these justices, called the grand justice, heads the court. A High Court justice serves until he or she dies or resigns (quits in the middle of his or her term). When that happens, the president nominates someone new to replace the justice who left. If the Guild agrees with that choice, the person becomes a justice. If the Guild does not agree with the president's choice, then the president must nominate someone else. It has been firmly established that the High Court is the ultimate interpreter of Panem's Constitution and has the power to strike down any law that conflicts with it.
- Main article: The Capitol
The Capitol is the biggest city in Panem and serves as the nation's central seat of government. It is located in an area formerly known as the Rocky Mountains and is surrounded by the fourteen outlying districts. The free residents of the Capitol are generally considered the wealthiest (and most decadent) of all Panem, and the city's prosperity is fueled by the industries and no-longer-forced labor of the districts beyond. While it is a major territory, it is not considered one of the thirteen districts. The people are most known for their "creative" outfits, and crazy sense of fashion, even to the extent of dying the color of their own skin, or even having whiskers implanted. President Snow leads Panem, until there is rebellion and eventually, war.
The fate of the Capitol after the war is that many lost their money, only gaining power by managing big inter-district businneses among other white collar jobs, since they didn't know how to strive and work. They had a large depression after the war, but its people prospered again.
The latest fad is fiery colours with biker-like designs for leather. For the upcoming fashion sense, it is said a layered and icey look accompanying pelts is too come, that is the latest Capitol fashion sources.
The Capitol's current population is about 5.1 million.
The nation of Panem is separated into a total of fourteen nation-states known as districts.
Each district generally has a unique culture unaffected by the other districts which strongly influenced by the goods it produced since the districts did not interact before the rebellion.
Originally, there were thirteen districts in Panem. During the Dark Days, the 13th district was supposedly obliterated by the Capitol and is no longer recognized as operational. Each District provides something different to the Capitol; for example, District 12 provides coal and District 4 provides fishing. There are technically fourteen but the fourteenth was never officially incorporated until recently.
- Main article: District 1
District 1 is one of the fourteen districts of Panem. Its industry was making luxury items for the Capitol, and still a major industry. Due to the nature of its industry, it's considered the wealthiest district, that is, over other districts in general. It is considered a career district.
The seat of government is Juno, and it was the last district to revolt in the Second Rebellion.
- Main article: District 2
District 2's seal depicts a block of stone and carving tools since masonry was its designated job. The district's public presentation was that of stone quarries, but it also manufactures weaponry, training, and they supplied Peacekeepers. To this day, they still provide soldiers. They have taken up the alot of what was once District 12's job, mining. The main military was called The Nut, existing inside a once mined mountain.
District 2 has several mining villages, practically carved into the mountains. The seat of government is Maxima, which has a population of about 1.4 million, making it Panem's third-largest city.
- Main article: District 3
District 3's primary industry was and is general electronics of many types, though it is known for also making various mechanical products such as automobiles and firearms. Thus, many of its residents are technically apt. It is not considered a career district, even though it has a some large cities.
The seat of government is Minerva, which has a population of about 900,000.
- Main article: District 4
District 4's primary industry is still fishing, thus most residents have experience using nets and tridents, making fishhooks from scratch, swimming, and identifying edible aquatic life. It is considered a Career District. Many residents moved to the Capitol to become entertainers in sports such as swimming, diving, etc.
District 4 has many port towns located along the coastline. The seat of government is Neptune. Finnick Odair was born in Laptis Magna, Annie Cresta was born in Neptune, and Mags Flanagan was born in Trajan.
- Main article: District 5
This district's industry was power. After the Rebellion, each city makes its own power. District 5 is now very diverse in industry and has become a Career district through wealth. The many Avox slaves of the Capitol migrated here heavily and their many talents through the many jobs they were forced to do in the Capitol contributed to this newfound wealth. District 5's relative closeness to The Capitol was also a factor in Avox immigration.
There are 5 towns in District 5, each responsible for a different kind of power. Zephyrus, the seat of government (and wind power), Auster (coal burning), Apollo (solar), Latona (hydroelectric), and Fulgora (nuclear).
- Main article: District 6
This district's industry was transportation. They are a still heavy producers in this industry and are now home to elaborate tunnels that house subways that they travel through.Their big city as well as its views has made it a place of tourism in Panem.
District 6's seat of government is called Mercurii. The 4 other towns have populations of about 24,000-31,000. Mercurii's population is almost 1.9 million, making it the second-most populous city in Panem, after the Capitol.
District 6 has been identified as the "birthplace of the Second Rebellion", because it is where thoughts of revolution started to spread, back around the time of the 64th Hunger Games.
- Main article: District 7
District 7's industry was lumber and many of its residents to have experience with hatchets, axes, saws, and other tree cutting tools.They are still skilled in this work field, but many have become farmers, dendrologists as well as experts in other natural fields of science.
District 7's seat of government is Vesta, and several logging and mill towns dot the landscape of the district. Johanna Mason, one of the victors of the 75th Hunger Games, and a major figure in the Second Rebellion, is from the town of Montem, which is located southwest of Vesta. It is also in District 7 that a radio broadcast was picked up from Calgary, shortly before the Second Rebellion, letting the rebels know that Panem was not the only civilized nation left on Earth, as they had previously been brainwashed into believing.
- Main article: District 8
District 8's principal industry is the production of textiles. They make the machines that make the textiles, and the designs. They sometimes make it by hand. Herds of sheep are common sites. District 8 is known as the fashion capital of most of Panem (since District 1 and the Capitol still dress "colorfully").
The seat of government (and only town) is Calypso. District 8 played a major part in the Second Rebellion.
- dessMain article: District 9
District 9's main industry is grain. After the revolution, many from District 10 came over and used the fine fields to feed their herds properly.
District 9 has several farming communities, which vary in population. The seat of government is known as Proserpina, after the Roman goddess of agriculture and fertility. District 9 even has its own railroad network, which connects to the rest of the nation's railroad system. Also, the district's many rivers were used in the transportation of grain. Despite being an agricultural district, 9 is actually one of the middle-class districts, where poverty is not nearly as widespread as in Districts 12, 11, 8, and 5.
- Main article: District 10
- Livestock is District 10's main industry. They also farm and are the scientific Capitol of Panem, mainly in a city near its interior. They have many immigrants from District 7.
District 10 has many small ranch towns. The seat of government is known as Faustitas, which is named after one of the Roman gods of livestock. District 10 is also one of Panem's largest districts, stretching from the southern border of District 2 to the Transatlantican border.
- Main article: District 11
District 11's main industry used to be agriculture--orchards and fields of grain and cotton surrounded the district. However, after the rebellion, many moved on to other places in search of other work field. The fact other districts are agricultural now are the only reason there still is food. District 11 is now lowly populated, but the landscapes attract tourists yearlong. 11 now has farms, fishing, and textiles as its main industry.</span>
District 11 has several small towns, known as Zones. Zone B is the seat of government, as depicted in the Catching Fire movie. The Zones were separated with tall concrete-and-steel fences before the Second Rebellion, and conditions were harsh.
- Main article: District 12
District 12 is located somewhere near what was the Appalachian mountains. Its chief industry was coal mining. They have become mainly agricultural.
Less populated after the bombings, District 12 is now ironically buzzing in certain areas. The District 12 mines haven't been touched in years. Some District 12 residents stayed in 13 after the rebellion.
Before the Second Rebellion, the town in District 12 was officially named Vulcan, after the Roman god of fire. However, it was, and is mostly still, known to locals as "The Town" or "The Settlement". Vulcan is located in present-day West Virginia.
- Main article: District 13
District 13 is one of the fourteen districts of Panem. Its main industry today is mining but their original industry was nuclear weapons and graphite. It was supposedly obliterated during the Dark Days as a warning to the other twelve districts of the Capitol's might.
Unbeknownst to the majority of Panem's populace, District 13 was also responsible for the research and development of nuclear- and fission-based technology before the Dark Days. Though it did have a few graphite mines, graphite mining was not the principal industry in District 13. Today graphite, and all other types of mining exist here today as people from Districts 2, 12 and 13 mine the area.
While the surface of District 13 remained scarred, its residents mostly live deep underground. It was used as a base for the Second Rebellion. After the rebellion, the newcomers made settlements above ground as well. District 13's nuclear power was spread out across Panem for a smaller amount of superiority. The same concept of "The Nut" was used for housing District 2, 6 and 12's bombs.</span>
The seat of government is Prometheus (a.k.a. The Bunker or The Compound).
- Main article: District 14
District 14 was a unique district, in the sense it was incorporated after the founding of the Republic of Panem. They were kept secret and were uninformed as to the world around them. District 14 was responsible for nationwide water management. They provided freshwater from the ice in the North where the district is located. They now also provide fish, pelts, and sewage, which they purify.
The seat of government is Tranquilitas.
Many of the wealthier districts such as Districts 1, 2,4 and 5, known as "Career Districts", have a more luxurious lifestyle in general. Today, the previously wealthy districts are still wealthy along with a new one that strived to power.
- Main article: Flag of Panem The flag of Panem is blue with a yellow seal in the center to represent the Capitol and the sun rising on a new nation. The 14 stars represent the 14 districts.